Skeletal Grain types

Red Algae

1. Ungdarellid

Skeletal packstone to rudstone containing a crinoid ossicle on the left with micritic oncoidal coating and fragments of the red alga Komia in longitudinal sections.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias, N Spain, cf. Bahamonde et al. (2015, 2017)

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2. Ungdarellid

Skeletal packstone with red algae Komia fragments in longitudinal and cross section (centre top) and Fasciella fragments (centre bottom) associated with fusulinid foraminifers and ostracods.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias, N Spain, cf. Bahamonde et al. (2015, 2017)

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3. Palaeozoic red algae

Condensed skeletal packstone with a transversal cross section of gastropod (with geopetal filling) coated by Archaeolithophyllum lamellosum.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias, N Spain, cf. Bahamonde et al. (2015, 2017)

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4. Palaeozoic red algae

Skeletal packstone with growth of possible red alga Fasciella and green algae beresellids.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias, N Spain, cf. Bahamonde et al. (2015, 2017)

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5. Palaeozoic red algae

Boundstone with the possible alga Fasciella/Iberiaella forming a framework with encrusting micrite and the shelter cavities filled by radiaxial fibrous cement.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias; Della Porta et al. (2002, 2003, 2004)

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6. Red phylloid algae

Packstone/bafflestone of Carboniferous red phylloid algae Archaeolithothamnium from Pennsylvanian shallow-water phylloid algal mounds.

Pennsylvanian, Colorado, USA

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7. Marinella

Example of red alga Marinella lugeoni from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) of Portugal.

Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian), Porto Novo, Portugal

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8. Marinella

Example of red alga Marinella lugeoni from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) of Portugal.

Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian), Porto Novo, Portugal

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9. Marinella

Example of red alga Marinella lugeoni from the Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) of Portugal.

Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian), Porto Novo, Portugal

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10. Coralline algae

Crustose calcareous red algae Lithothamnium in a packstone with extensive dissolutional porosity in the surrounding matrix.

Bassein Fm., Eocene, Mukta Field, Bombay High, offshore India

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11. Coralline algae

Crustose calcareous red algae from Eocene facies.

Bassein Fm., Eocene, Mukta Field, Bombay High, offshore India

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12. Coralline algae

Oncoid of red algae (rhodoid) with visible fine cellular structure and zone of conceptacles from Eocene Guara Limestone.

Lower Eocene, Arguis (Pyrenees), North Spain

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13. Peyssonnelid

Skeletal packstone with resedimented bioclasts including elongated fragments of peyssonnelid algae, coralline red algae and serpulids.

Paleocene, Central Apennines, Italy

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14. Peyssonnelid

Peyssonnelid algae from the Palaeocene of Basque Country.

Palaeocene, N Spain

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15. Peyssonnelid

Peyssonnelid algae from the Palaeocene of Basque Country.

Palaeocene, N Spain

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16. Peyssonnelid

Peyssonnelid algae from the Palaeocene of Basque Country.

Palaeocene, N Spain

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17. Coralline

Red algae oncoids (rhodoids) packstone with red coralline algae Lithothamnium associated with skeletal debris and serpulids.

Thin section kindly provided by T. Geel, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

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18. Coralline

Skeletal packstone (Eocene) with larger benthic foraminifera (Discocyclina, Operculina) and on the right a fragment of the red coralline alga Lithothamnium.

Thin section kindly provided by T. Geel, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

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19. Coralline

Cross-section of the red coralline alga Lithothamnium partly encrusted by acervulinid foraminifera.

Thin section kindly provided by T. Geel, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

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20. Coralline

Lithothamnium boundstone with encrusting acervulinid foraminifera.

Thin section kindly provided by T. Geel, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

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21. Coralline

Lithothamnium rhodoids with borings due to endolithic organisms.

Thin section kindly provided by T. Geel, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

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22. Coralline

Lithothamnium rhodoids in a packstone matrix encrusted at the top by serpulid worm tubes.

Miocene, Central Apennines, Italy

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23. Coralline

Skeletal grainstone rich in bryozoans and benthic foraminifera containing two Lithothamnium oncoids.

Miocene, Central Apennines, Italy

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24. Coralline

Bindstone of the coralline red alga Lithophyllum with carbonate mud matrix and skeletal debris.

Miocene, Central Apennines, Italy

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25. Coralline

Bindstone of the coralline red alga Lithophyllum with carbonate mud matrix and skeletal debris.

Miocene, Central Apennines, Italy

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crinoid

red alga Komia

Komia

Fasciella

Archaeolithophyllum lamellosum

gastropod

Fasciella

Beresella

Fasciella/Iberiaella

radiaxial fibrous cement

Peyssonnelid algae

serpulids

Lithothamnium oncoids

serpulid

Lithothamnium

Operculina foraminifer

Discocyclina foraminifer

Lithothamnium

acervulinid foraminifera

Lithothamnium

acervulinid foraminifera

Boring infilled by sediment within red alga

serpulids

Lithophyllum

Lithophyllum

Red Algae

CLOSE

crinoid

red alga Komia

Komia

Fasciella

Archaeolithophyllum lamellosum

gastropod

Fasciella

Beresella

Fasciella/Iberiaella

radiaxial fibrous cement

Peyssonnelid algae

serpulids

Lithothamnium oncoids

serpulid

Lithothamnium

Operculina foraminifer

Discocyclina foraminifer

Lithothamnium

acervulinid foraminifera

Lithothamnium

acervulinid foraminifera

Boring infilled by sediment within red alga

serpulids

Lithophyllum

Lithophyllum