Skeletal Grain types

Sponges

1. Siliceous sponge spicules

Wackestone with monoaxone sponge spicules from Demosponges associated with crinoid ossicles and fenestellid bryozoans in a mud mound

Mississippian, New Mexico, USA

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2. Siliceous sponge spicules

Skeletal packstone with cross-sections of monoaxone sponge spicules from Demosponges associated with gastropods and ostracods (Late Jurassic).

Thin section kindly provided by T. Geel, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

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3. Siliceous sponge spicules

Clotted peloidal micrite boundstone with Demosponge sponge spicules embedded in micrite and microspar.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias; Della Porta et al. (2003, 2004)

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4. Siliceous sponge spicules

Micrite coated grain packstone with tetraxon sponge spicules (Demosponges).

Thin section kindly provided by T. Geel, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam

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5. Siliceous sponge spicules

Wackestone to packstone from microbial-sponge mound facies containing sponge spicules of monoaxone, tetraxone (Demosponges) and hexactine (Hexactinellids) type and mm-size stromatactis-like cavities filled by radial fibrous cement.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Merino-Tome' et al. (2012), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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6. Hexactinellid sponge

In the central part the body of a hexactinellid sponge (note right angles between fused spicules) containing tubes of the worm Terebella.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Merino-Tome' et al. (2012), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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7. Hexactinellid sponge

Hexactinellid sponge (note right angles between fused spicules) containing tubes of the worm Terebella and ostracods.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Della Porta et al. (2013)

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8. Demosponge

A Lithistid demosponge in which the siliceous spicules are fused together. In between the spicules peloidal micrite precipitated due to microbially influenced processes.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Merino-Tome' et al. (2012), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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9. Demosponge

A demosponge characterised by monoaxone sponge spicules surrounded by structureless leiolitic micrite in a mound facies.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Della Porta et al. (2013)

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10. Hexactinellid vs. Lithistid

A coated grain packstone including a hexactinellid sponge (upper part) and a lithistid demosponge (lower part).

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Merino-Tome' et al. (2012), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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11. Hexactinellid

Micrite coated grain packstone containing a hexactinellid sponge.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Merino-Tome' et al. (2012), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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12. Hexactinellid vs. Lithistid

Coated grain packstone with reworked and micrite coated fragments of hexactinellid sponge (centre left) and lithistid demosponge (centre right).

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Merino-Tome' et al. (2012), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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13. Chaetetid

Chaetetes (probable calcareous demosponge) encrusted by tubular foraminifers.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias, N Spain, cf. Bahamonde et al. (2015, 2017)

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14. Chaetetid

Chaetetes (probable calcareous demosponge) in Pennsylvanian shallow water lagoon.

Pennsylvanian, Asturias, N Spain, cf. Bahamonde et al. (2015, 2017)

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15. Chaetetid

Chaetetes (probable calcareous demosponge with the margins encrusted and micritised) within a micrite coated grain packstone to grainstone in a Lower Jurassic outer platform.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Verwer et al. (2009b)

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16. Chaetetid

Chaetetes (probable calcareous demosponge) within a peloidal packstone to grainstone in a Lower Jurassic platform interior.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Verwer et al. (2009a)

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17. Demosponge

A possible lithistid demosponge in a Lower Jurassic upper slope.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Verwer et al. (2009b), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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18. Stromatoporoid

A stromatoporoid (left corner) in a Lower Jurassic upper slope.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Verwer et al. (2009b), Della Porta et al. (2013)

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19. Calcareous sponge

A possible calcareous sponge encrusted by a siliceous hexactinellid.

Lower Jurassic, High Atlas, Morocco, cf. Verwer et al. (2009a)

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20. Siliceous sponge spicules

Bioturbated packstone containing monoaxone sponge spicules (demosponges) from Upper Carbonifeorus outer ramp facies.

Pennsylvanian, Gobler Formation, Fresnal Canyon, New Mexico, USA

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21. Siliceous sponge spicules

Bioturbated packstone containing monoaxone sponge spicules (demosponges) from Upper Carbonifeorus outer ramp facies.

Pennsylvanian, Gobler Formation, Fresnal Canyon, New Mexico, USA

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22. Siliceous sponge spicules

Packstone containing monoaxone sponge spicules (demosponges) from Upper Carbonifeorus outer ramp facies.

Pennsylvanian, Gobler Formation, Fresnal Canyon, New Mexico, USA

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monoaxone sponge spicules

fenestellid bryozoan

monoaxone sponge spicules

gastropod

peloidal micrite

sponge spicule

tetraxone sponge spicules

micrite-coated grains

stromatactis-like cavity

Hexactinellid sponge

Terebella

Hexactinellid sponge

Terebella

Lithistid demosponge

Demosponge

Lithistid demosponge

Hexactinellid sponge

Hexactinellid sponge

Hexactinellid

Lithistid

Chaetetes

encrusting tubular foraminifer

Chaetetes

Stromatoporoid

Calcareous sponge

Sponges

CLOSE

monoaxone sponge spicules

fenestellid bryozoan

monoaxone sponge spicules

gastropod

peloidal micrite

sponge spicule

tetraxone sponge spicules

micrite-coated grains

stromatactis-like cavity

Hexactinellid sponge

Terebella

Hexactinellid sponge

Terebella

Lithistid demosponge

Demosponge

Lithistid demosponge

Hexactinellid sponge

Hexactinellid sponge

Hexactinellid

Lithistid

Chaetetes

encrusting tubular foraminifer

Chaetetes

Stromatoporoid

Calcareous sponge